- To understand copyright issues around sampling and hip-hop production techniques.
- Lobby for change in copyright law to reduce the friction in the creative process when using samples, by making them more affordable to use and clearer guidelines.
- Educate myself about hip-hop in order to have more to share with students. Help university music programs be more diverse and inclusive.
- Develop a paper about the effect of changes in sampling law on the evolution of hip-hop music.
- Influence of technology on evolution of style
- turntables (early 1970s)
- drum machines (early 1980s) - Roland TR808, Oberheim DMX, E-Mu
- samplers (mid 1980s) - Ensoniq Mirage and EPS, E-Mu Emulator, Akai S900
- sequencers (late 1980s) - Akai MPC60
- computer software (late 1990s) - Fruity Loops, Reason, Logic, Ableton Live
- digital turntable controllers - Numark + Serato
- The Composition and Production of Layered Loops in Hip-Hop: A Historical Perspective [ CMS presentation ]
- Teaching Hip-Hop production skills in songwriting classes [ MEIEA presentation ]
Diversity Associates Program
This work began under the auspices of BSU's Diversity Associates Program under the leadership of Charlene Alexander. David W. Concepción (Professor and Chair, Dept. of Philosophy & Religious Studies) was my mentor and faculty developer. He is passionate about the music dating back to wearing out his vinyl copy of Rapper's Delight in 1979, and was a big help throughout the year, and helped develop discussion topics for class such as:
- Hyper-masculinity in rap music and videos
- Lyrics and imagery
- Context of language
- Images of women
- Evolution of sub-bass
- Joseph G. Schloss. Making Beats: The Art of Sample-Based Hip-Hop
- Kembrew McLeod and Peter DiCola. Creative License: The Law and Culture of Digital Sampling.
Run-D.M.C.: Run-D.M.C. (1984), Raising Hell (1986)
De La Soul: 3 Feet and Rising (1989), De La Soul Is Dead (1991)
A Tribe Called Quest: People’s Instinctive Travels and the Paths of Rhythm (1990), The Low End Theory (1991)
Public Enemy: Yo! Bum Rush The Show (1987), It Takes A Nation Of Millions To Hold Us Back (1988), Fear Of A Black Planet (1991)
LL Cool J: Bigger and Deffer (1987), Mama Said Knock You Out (1990)
EPMD: Unfinished Business (1989), Business Never Personal (1992)
Big Daddy Kane: Long Live The Kane (1988), Taste Of Chocolate (1990)
Eric B. & Rakim: Paid In Full (1987), Follow The Leader (1988)
MC Hammer: Let’s Get It Started (1988), Please Hammer, Don’t Hurt ‘Em (1990), Too Legit TO Quit (1991)
N.W.A.:Straight Outta Compton (1988), Boogie Down Productions,Criminal Minded (1987),By All Means Necessary (1988)
Biz Markie: The Biz Never Sleeps (1989)
Beastie Boys: Licensed To Ill (1986), Paul’s Boutique (1989), Ill Communication (1994)
Vanilla Ice: To The Extreme –(1990),The Predator (1992)
Arrested Development: 3 Years, 5 Months & 2 Days in the Life Of… (1992)
Dr. Dre:The Chronic (1992)
The Notorius B.I.G.Ready To Die (1994)
Doug Pray. Scratch. Palm Pictures, 2001.
Benjamin Franzen. Copyright Criminals. Copyright Criminals, LLC, 2010.
Brett Gaylor. RIP: A Remix Manifesto. EyeSteelFilm, 2009.
Mark McNeil and Bryan Younce. Secondhand Sureshots. Stones Throw Records, 2010.
VH1: And You Don't Stop 30 Years of Hip-Hop, 2004.
History of hip-hop -
Sanchir Enkhbayar. Secondhand Sureshots. Documentary about four DJs making songs using five found records, spending a maximum of $5.